IJSR International Journal of Scientific Research 2277 - 8179 Indian Society for Health and Advanced Research ijsr-8-5-19219 Original Research Paper Initial Prealbumin Level and Ability to Normalize Prealbumin are Highly Predictive of Increased Mortality and Morbidity in Elderly Trauma Patients Akella Dr. Akella Chendrasekhar Dr. May 2019 8 5 01 02 ABSTRACT

 Prealbumin is a well characterized indicator of nutritional status more recently found to be an inverse inflammatory marker. At our urban level 1 trauma center, we sought to study the relationship between malnutrition and outcomes in elderly trauma patients. Using prealbumin as a surrogate marker for nutritional status, we hypothesized that patients with reduced prealbumin on initial evaluation have worse outcomes, and in patients where initial prealbumin that was reduced, ability to correct is associated with improved outcomes.

We performed a retrospective cohort study involving 200 consecutive patients over the age of 65 admitted to our trauma service. Based on initial prealbumin, patients were divided into 3 groups – below 5 mg/dL, 5–10 mg/dL and greater than 10 mg/dL. Prealbumin was then re–assessed 4 days after admission and patients were again divided into 2 groups based on ability to normalize prealbumin. Data obtained included age, gender, revised trauma score (RTS), injury severity score (ISS), days on a ventilator, ICU length of stay (ICU–LOS), hospital length of stay (HLOS), survival, initial prealbumin, and ability to correct prealbumin within 4 days after admission.

Of the 200 patients enrolled, patients were divided into 3 groups using initial prealbumin – 71 patients below 5 mg/dL, 101 patients 5–10 mg/dL, and 28 patients greater than 10 mg/dL. There were 180 patients who were hospitalized for over a 4 day period. Normalization of prealbumin was achieved in 128 patients while 52 patients did not. Mean age was 79.2 years. RTS was found to be decreased in patients with initial prealbumin below 5 mg/dL in comparison to the other groups (11.3 vs. 11.8 vs. 11.8, p = 0.0002), with greater ISS (25.1 vs. 18.8 vs. 19.7, p < 0.0001), ICU LOS (days) (11.3 vs. 3.9 vs. 3.0, p < 0.0001), ventilator days (7.9 vs. 0.8 vs. 0.1, p < 0.0001), HLOS (days) (17.4 vs 7.8 vs. 7.1, p < 0.0001) and decreased survival (66% vs. 95% vs. 100%, p < 0.0001). Patients with prealbumin corrected within 4 days had lower ISS (19.9 vs. 29.2, p < 0.0001), as well as reduction in ventilator days (0.9 vs. 10.1, p < 0.0001), ICU LOS (days) (4.2 vs. 13.8, p < 0.0001), HLOS (days) (8.3 vs. 21.3, p < 0.0001) and improved survival (94% vs. 63%, p < 0.0001).    

Prealbumin is able to provide short term information regarding current nutritional status and response to therapy. Recent evidence suggest prealbumin may be a prognostic indicator for risk of malnutrition and inflammation in critically ill trauma patients. In management of critically ill trauma patients, prealbumin can provide a valuable clinical indication of response to therapeutic intervention and potentially guide management strategy.